It is the town nestled in the Rhodopes ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Chepelare is a town located at the heart of the mountains. Located 9 km from Pamporovo mountain resort, 20 km from Smolyan and about 240 km from Sofia. Its altitude of 1100 meters makes it the highest town in Bulgaria placements
It is the town traditions and long history of skiing. The first ski school in Chepelare opened in 1954
Prepared skiers there marks the first success for Bulgaria ski disciplines. Today the old tracks and facilities are fully renovated and marked according to European standards. Two of the tracks are entitled to conduct international competitions.
One of the main tracks in the resort is advanced - red length 3250 m. It is equipped with the most advanced system in Bulgaria snow - Johnson Controls. 47 cannons can cover the track for 100 hours at a temperature of -3 ¬į C. Available to skiers is green track intermediate length about 6 km, and several short runs of varying difficulty. For skiers and snowboarders is down and red hard track with deep snow and a length of 1.2 km. An interesting fact is that the slopes are equipped with wireless internet access for the convenience of visitors.
This is the longest track alpine skiing in Bulgaria - Mechi Chal, with its 6 km length. Chepelare regularly hosts international competitions in skiing and snowboarding. The track is equipped with all necessary facilities. About Chepelare has another track - for cross country skiing and biathlon.
The total length of ski runs and roads is 20 km. There are lifts and modern four-seat lift.
Chepelare is the only plant in this country skiing. There is also a unique museum dedicated to skiing and ski - sports.
History of Chepelare ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
From ancient times the Rhodopes are mysterious and mysterious mountains. Mountain of the mythical Orpheus and Bessi - Guardians of the famous temple of Dionysus. Excavations show the existence of life from around the XII century BC
Christ. The remains of many Thracian fortresses say that here in ancient times is bubbling rich socio-cultural life. Thracian fortresses guarded the road from gr.Abdera (Aegean Sea) for Istros. Ore deposits in the region conducive to the development of metal and the jeweler's art from antiquity. Findings of the Thracian bronze fibula suggests that even in the 7-8 century BC. there was an outflow of manufacturing centers. The current territory of the Municipality of Chepelare found more than one third of all arc ednopruzhinni fibula.
Ore mining continues to evolve after the conquest of the region by the Romans. This indirect information contained in the section on mines and those who work in them, the Law of Emperor Valentinian I (364-375 AD). And in the works of Roman poet Claudius (fourth century AD. ). Discovered during archaeological glassware, mugs, buckles, coins and ceramics from the late Roman period (379-450 AD.) Testify to the continuing intensive economic life. In 1911 excavations have found traces of a Roman bath, which for now is the only trace of urban development in the Central Rhodopes.
From the First and Second Bulgarian Empire (681-1393) The found numerous medieval castles, villages and cemeteries, some of which are still used since Thracian times.
During the Bulgarian Renaissance (1762-1878) In the town of Chepelare and the settlements around it boils lively cultural and educational activities, illustrated by the existing 14 temples and 72 chapels. Four churches have been declared as artistic monuments of national importance and one of the churches and 15 chapels are declared as cultural monuments of local importance. Each temple has existed and school.
The municipality of Chepelare has 61 cultural monuments, of which 17 are declared monuments of culture, and the remaining 44 are only declared as such. Three of the declared monuments are of national importance, 2 for information, while the other 12 with local significance. Of the declared monuments 3 are of national importance, 1 note and 40 of local importance. Chepelare is Bulgaria's only museum of caves.
Buildings are typical representatives of the Rhodope house with a stone ground floor and second floors bay issued, in whose light coat entered the dark wood window openings. Both the Orthodox church religion were built in St. Athanasius in 1835. and the Virgin Mary in 1866.
Posed apse basilica with murals of artists Dimitar Hristov and Georgi Hrisav (BSAP). St. Athanasius Church was erected for 40 days from the Bulgarians and Muslims in place of Christian Oborishte (chapel). Holy Place was located between three fir. It was here that was hidden the icon of St. Athanasius, who, according to popular belief is ruler of snow and ice.
Their place in spisaka of cultural values ‚Äč‚Äčand monument covers, which is a small version of Shipka monument, located near the home of Caveman. Cultural festivals, especially those related to Bulgarian folk music and dances attract tourists and lovers of folklore from around the world. Essential for the whole region and the country is fair of Rozhen, which is transnational importance and is held every four years.
Historical events temples and monuments ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
It is believed that the lands of present-day town of Chepelare been inhabited since ancient times. This is confirmed in the area Batalski stone urns with burnt bones, tops of arrows and spears, and other various decorations. According to the analysis of specialists are Thracian finds. In the land of the city are revealed by the Bulgarian Christian graves XII-XIV century, but reliable information about a settlement within the present city in antiquity and in medieval times there.
According to historical data on these lands first settled Lingerie-Kehaya house built in 1705 subsequently found a home here and people from neighboring villages. Visitors in 1726 purchased land and became farmers of the valley and surrounding hills. Later the settlement was formed, and thus was born Chepelare. The name of the town comes from the village gyumyurdzhiyskoto Chepe, which in Bulgarian means stormy, cold.
The villagers managed to defend themselves from attacks by brigands. Their main occupation was cattle and some handicrafts and some of the men walked in the Aegean Sea as master-builders and fishermen. In the valley of the Chepelare river is the Roman road from Plovdiv to the Aegean Sea. During summer pastures near Chepelare be filled with flocks in winter shepherds took them to the Aegean Sea. Local people showed true heroism in 1836 when co-construct the church St. Athanasius and 3 stone towers for defense of the temple. This is happened only 40 days after the Pomaks Bulgarian Muslims who fought against the construction. Christians helped detachment of soldiers sent by the Sultan. Later it was raised and the school, and in 1867 the second church - St. Virgin Mary.
After the unification of the Principality of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia Turkish border was closed. It was impossible to reach the Aegean Sea. This is a milestone in the history of these lands. The population was forced to destroy most of their cattle, and to destroy the forest to provide pasture for the rest of the animals. On January 18, 1878 Caucasian Cossack Brigade General Cherevin released Chepelare. The same year he stayed in Captain Petko Voivode with his detachment to protect Bulgarian Christian population of Senklerovite rebels.
The Treaty of Berlin makes Chepelare border village and it often stayed or passed stacks Chieftain Peyo Shishmanov in struggles for liberation of the rest of the Fatherland. During the period 1879-1886. near Chepelare were destroyed over 30,000 acres of pine forests. This is the greatest destruction of forests in the history of the Rhodope Mountains.
Chepelare is now famous as a resort for what is established in the 30s and 40s of the XX century, today it is why tourism is one of the main livelihoods of the local population, along with forestry and woodworking industry. Chepelare has magnificent Orthodox churches. One is dedicated to St. Athanasius, and was built in 1835 The other was built in 1866 and two years later he was elevated to Double-pane and school buildings. The city operates Europe's only Museum of Rhodope Karst, representing the beauty of caves and cave exhibits, preserved since the dawn of human history.
Museum of skis and skiing is a great museum collection. He settled in the largest municipal community center - Rhodope spark. Chepelare is of interesting ethnographic and folklore reserve. Here is preserved the ancient Rhodope architecture Uzunski house and house Stoyu Shishkov.
Information on ski runs in Chepelare ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Chepelare is located in the central part of the Rhodope Mountains, upstream of the Chepelare river, at an average altitude of 1150 meters and area 375 square meters town of Chepelare is the administrative center of the municipality. It is situated 1140 meters above sea level and 230 km from the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia. Chepelare is 80 km from the regional center of Plovdiv and 22 km from the county town of Smolyan. Favorable continental climate with strong Mediterranean influence, old plantations of spruce, pine and fir, clean environment, well-developed infrastructure creates opportunities for tourism, recreation and entertainment throughout the year.
Chepelare Sports Center welcomes tourists with almost 20 km. ski runs and ski routes. E carried out a comprehensive treatment of existing runways and are a mark of European standards. One of the main tracks in the center for advanced red with length 3250 m. It is equipped with most modern Bulgaria snowmaking system. 47 cannons can cover the track for 100 hours at a temperature of -3 degrees.
Available to skiers is green track intermediate length nearly 6 kilometers and a few shorter runs of varying difficulty. For skiers and snowboarders is down and red hard track with deep snow and a length of 1.2 km. For the first time in our tracks are all equipped with free wireless internet. So fans of mountain skiing and boarding will be able to surf the web from your laptop or mobile phone in between downhill or near slopes institutions.
For maintenance of runs can be found here. Available to lovers of winter sports in Chepelare Sports Center is a modern 4-chair lift with a capacity of 2,000 people per hour. With its distance from the town of Chepelare Mechi Chal peak of 2700 m is traveled only 9 minutes. Lift line was built by the French company "skiers". For the first time in Bulgaria Chepelare Sports Center will be used and special allowance for the tourists, developed by Austrian company AXESS. This link will avoid the accumulation of skiers on the lift in the busiest times of the day.
Attractions near Chepelare ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Natural attractions are the famous Miraculous Bridges (Air Kjupria). They represent three natural bridges over the small river Aidarsko gully. Together they create a unique phenomenon Rhodope. Reserve is near Pamporovo Momchilovski dol - chernoborova primary forest protected areas deep gorge, Smolyan Lakes Bride (Turlata) old-growth forests, lakes landslides and rock formations.
In the region of Chepelare has archaeological sites - three medieval necropolis, one end is open and medieval village. Among the places in Chepelare churches are St. Athanasius and St. Mary, and the observatory. It is located 15 km from the resort of Mechi Chal.
The city can be visited Orthodox churches, among them St. Athanasius Church, built in 1935 Another, named after the Virgin Mary, was built in 1866 and in 1868 it was elevated to Double-pane and building for school. The temple is a nave, apse basilica with frescoes, the work of artists Dimitar Hristov and Georgi Hrisev or BSAP. Adam is an interesting fresco plow ground that has a distinct ethnographic element.
The town of Chepelare is considered ethnographic folklore reserve. The locals are renowned for their craftsmanship in the manufacture of carpets, rugs and more. Which are dotted with beautiful folk motifs and ornamentation.
Recommendations for hikers ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Recommendations for hikers - analysis of adversity in our mountains give rise to claims that their causes are most often combined, but in most cases they are reduced to some subjective factors insufficient preconditioning: a common organization, physical training, technical knowledge and skills suitable to the season and the ground equipment and facilities; inappropriate tactics, according to the specific terrain and weather, weather forecast, the state of the participants psychological barrier to making an adequate decision to wait, return, end of the event (trips, excursions) in sharp changing traffic conditions in the mountains. Below we list some simple rules created and verified since the ancestors of mountaineering in the country. We believe that for young and old will be useful to refresh and enhance knowledge in this area.
Organize your pre-tourist venture obtain a tourist map, guide, study the route, consultation, a plan of movement for the duration of transitions in the twilight time of day into account the complicated winter situation. Uchastintsite carefully selected group usually can be your relatives, friends, colleagues, however, one condition - they are almost identical physical and technical training and have good equipment. Not form large groups. Very often the composition of such groups is heterogeneous mobile group becomes difficult, and further changes occur. It is important, and psychological compatibility. In the presence of children and less-prepared participants determine their capabilities and behavior of the entire group. Announce leader, the leader of the group. Even in a narrow or a family friendly company should have a leader, a leader who can hold those events.
Inform yourself about the specifics of the route, this means you have information about hazardous areas and ways to create an emergency exit and follow the tactics of movement depending on terrain and weather conditions, your options leave early to finish the day shift in the world. Make precise selection of equipment and facilities do not forget to take with you sanitary bag with the necessary medicines and bandages. well-chosen facial creams with high protection factor sun shines high special goggles to protect your eyes from ultraviolet radiation map and compass, flashlight with spare bulbs and batteries, spare warm clothing and footwear, protective film (nylon) in the case of forced bivouac . calorie fortified foods (candy, chocolate, etc.).
Depart only if you maintain a healthy year-round physical fitness. Do not walk alone in the mountains, ask for the weather situation after reports of its development and modification. Keep in mind that the weather in the mountains suffer sudden and unexpected changes. Following information to the SCP for the ground state in the ski centers, ski runs. Keep up the work of the lifts and the avalanche danger is moderate Move move not rush unnecessarily and relax so that after the transition day hikes or pleasant to feel fatigue, no muscle strain, gradually increase the load and altitude at the onset of malaise, do every day or get off at the hut with low altitude transitions magnify and extending gradually acquiring experience and treniranost.
Announce your route with possible deviations announced schedule of movement. It should be known by your family, friends and colleagues. Tell it to the divisions of the SCPs. Sign up huts on the route. Watch out for the danger of losing in fog, high winds and snowfall, especially in exposed areas of the mountain there is a real danger of losing. So remember: traffic under similar conditions to the marking, using azimuth sketches compass and map for additional guidance to the movement slowly, without tearing the group. Keep the number of people, do not let retardation, under very difficult circumstances think about emergency exit route. If you're not sure where you move, get down in a safe way in the forest of the mountain and organize forced bivouac, do not let panic and controversy. Listen to good advice. Beware of frostbite Exposed body parts may freeze not only at very low temperatures, but in a combination of zero and subzero temperatures with strong winds and rain, rain and sleet. Therefore, ensure dry clothes, hats and gloves for fatigue stop. Slow down but do not lie or sit on the snow, the loss of sensitivity of different parts of the body, there are no blisters, rub the restoration of sensitivity and only with a dry cloth. Rest of snow white lies the danger of death due to total exhaustion of the body. Take plenty of fluids, calories food, but not alcohol.
Beware of avalanche danger under certain conditions: snow, slopes and suitable temperature to slide huge masses of snow and form a natural phenomenon - snow avalanche. Tourists entering into the high mountains in winter conditions should be very well aware of avalanche danger, terms and conditions through avalanche areas. You should know that the avalanche chutes and slopes are in the lower part of the mountains and near the ski slopes. Usually they are marked with special markings staggered with yellow and black squares.
Pay particular attention to food and maintaining the water balance of ortanizma. Admire the surrounding nature, but it and beware. Packages of food waste, glass jars and bottles to store the appropriate bag and brings them back for disposal in urban areas. Protect forests, rare plant species. Find a way to fill and enrich their knowledge to achieve year-round physical fitness knowledge for quality, efficient equipment and facilities and optimal nutrition knowledge of topography, meteorology and orientation, providing assistance and comradely self first pre-medical care
Minimum requirements for safety ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Comply with other skiers, snowboarders! By their behavior does not endanger or harm another skier snowboarder! Adapt your speed and riding style according to their abilities, terrain and weather conditions. Choose a suitable trail riding. Carat rear skier or snowboarder coming from above must be chosen so trail riding that does not endanger located in front of and below the skiers / snowboarders. The advantage is lower! When riding in rough terrain never trust old monitor! They may be made under other conditions.
Learn how to properly and safely overtaking. Overtaking is possible on all sides, but it should be done only if there is enough distance and overtaking is not threatened. Especially be careful when overtaking a child! Stop and stay on the ski slopes. Avoid the fall and stopping along the narrow and with poor visibility places the ski slopes. If a fallen skier snowboarder coming after him to secure the area above it and if it can not be done alone, must notify spesiteli mountain rescue. Compliance with the warning signs and placards. Each skier / snowboarder is bound set signs and placards. Failure to sign and signs often leads to misery.
Skate is not without stops or security straps!
Do not go skiing without gloves!
Increase in fog distance and reduce speed!
Choose tracks and terrain as they are able!
Consider the short winter day and the complicated winter situation!
Know the weather situation and track status messages on the slopes!
Care for your diligent ski equipment!
Use adjusted ski bindings and warm winter clothes!
Take care of your physical condition!
Go on a trip only if you are healthy!
Tell your friends where you are going and when you'll go!
Admire the surrounding nature, but keep it!
Keep an attitude of termination of hiking in bad weather change or tired!
Inform and consult with the Mountain Rescue Service on the state of the ski runs and ski routes.
Avalanches ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Avalanche CE misfortunes increased by influx of people into the mountains. Most of them are caused by the victims themselves. Many disasters can be avoided if the victims would have more knowledge about avalanches and better training.
Identification of avalanche terrain slope: dangerous slopes are most often with a slope between 25 and 45 degrees, ideal for ski, snowboard or snowmobile. Orientation to the wind: leeward slopes are potentially hazardous due to snow transport by wind and receipt of unstable snow boards. - The profile of the slope, its location to the sun and the presence of trees and other natural obstacles - all affect the potential avalanche danger. Can the snow to slide? The snow board is a compact layer of snow with a large area that is separated from more stable snow or ground. Scalable avalanche potential exists when snow board lies above the lower snow. Most people within the layer avalanches.
Safe movement on the mountain before tragnete Explore route and the dangers associated with it: known avalanche areas, peaks, rocks, etc. Get weather and avalanche danger. Prepare an alternate route. Turn on your individual avalanche gear. If you do not forget other aids - avalanche cord, shovel, probe. Do not underestimate the nature of signals recently fallen avalanches on similar slopes, subsidence noises in the snow cover, crackling cracks, sudden warming novonavalyal snow.
Remember! Weather in the mountains is generally very variable and it is the architect of avalanches. If you still have to go through a dangerous area: - Loosen all straps, buckles, belts. Be prepared for an avalanche to getting rid of all the items (backpacks, ski poles) - Move through a dangerous area one by one with constant monitoring by his companions. If you find yourself in a snow avalanche If you try to ski through diagonally downhill to escape from the path of snow avalanche If you mass gatherings try to hold of the surface of the avalanche. in stopping the avalanche Check hand with which to dig. Try not to panic, believe that you will be helped. If you witness an avalanche in which people come to remember the place at which people were, when caught in an avalanche and place them in her disappearance. If possible, mark these places with available materials (twigs, etc.).. Runway around the line joining these two points is the most likely place to find buried. After stopping the avalanche, search the whole area covered by it with the eyes and ears, and concentrate on the most likely places around natural obstacles (trees, individual stones rock threshold) Found some of them were buried rearrange Remember that time in the first 15-20 minutes gives the best chances (to 92%) to be buried alive. Therefore, comradely assistance in the first minutes can be crucial. If this first search is not successful, would have the fastest way to tell what had happened unfortunately MRS.
Snowdrifts! Time are between spring and summer. In the high mountains and especially in Rila, Pirin, Central Balkan and Vitosha mountains still snow spread over a large area. Many of the popular mountain trails covered with snow, which especially in the morning is hard and firnovan. When slipping danger of serious injury and trauma, but are not rare cases that end in the most tragic - death. Mountain Rescue Service has repeatedly paid attention to tourists and mountaineers that skating on the snow drifts and their passage is dangerous and therefore reminded once more of the following Do not cross and skated on the snowbank. In the smallest possible avoid them, circumvent them. If you need to cross it remember the following must be shod with shoes having profiled rubber outsole vibramova or that have good adhesion with the snow surface. While driving on the snow surface must have in your hand ledokop or other tools that can serve as a means of security and self. Diagonal cross over the snow fields tend to light up and then possibly in the narrowest part. Making steps from the most experienced is routine work. Generally the top step of the foot is in the direction of movement and that of the bottom - slightly down, as it serves as a central pillar. As additional support for a greater inclination to use ledokopa that hangs from the upper side and stick with both hands. For large gradients, and very hard terrain must be organized railing in passing the rest of the group with appropriate samoosigurovka. Descent in snow drifts must be also a last resort when no other opportunity for movement, and with ledokop ready for self-locking.
In these days of April, May and June are still in the high mountains of the rivers under snow, and sometimes they have a precarious crossing snow bridges. This should be done only in extreme cases, subject to all rules of safety and security. The water is extremely cold and lush and there is a danger in falling into it from drowning. Crossing rivers on such bridges should be done only in the presence of stable security. In traditional summer cruising holiday with children and students. Recall that in snowdrifts parzaleneto is dangerous! The leaders of such groups must cross such uncompromising action.
Medical advice of the mountain rescue service ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
General cooling and freezing cause harm to local, caused by the impact of low temperatures on the human body with predominant loss of heat than in Inducing metabolism of the body heat. Disabilities are severe and chronic. This material is considered acute injuries that are local frostbite, a general cooling combination of both, Faktroi facilitating damaging weather conditions - temperature, wind, humidity, etc.. current status of equipment and body protectors duration of exposure to cold instant first aid method of first aid and transport - Conduct rescue teams and medical facilities. Pathological processes occurring in tissues and organs caused by sharp frosts damage the formation of microcrystalline ice or between cells in acute disruption of blood flow in organs and tissues enhancing blood clotting in small, medium and large arteries, followed by further disruption of the blood supply disruption of neuronal regulation blood supply, leading to disturbances and metabolic formation nekravosnabdeni killed and sections of tissue (necrosis) in dry surface damage, and in deeper and secondarily infected - damp occurs secondary to effects on whole body, especially during prolonged exposure to cold and damp of cold-pathological damage develop and phase in the evolution in time.
Local frostbite most often exposed parts - fingers, legs, tip of nose, ear shells, exposed areas of the face, etc. We distinguish four levels First Grade: sudden, severe pallor, initial pain followed by numbness. Upon termination of the effects of cold and heat vigorously - subsequent painful reactions, itching, redness and swelling lasting on average about 72 hours Second stage: occurs several hours after the cold weather effects including the above symptoms plus blistering, filled with clear or slightly yellowish liquid Third degree : there are signs of grade I and II, plus a hardening of the damaged areas and persistent pallor, along with loss of sensitivity. Several hours later following an abrupt change of color of the affected area - blue, dark blue to livid. From time to time - and increase sharply reduce pain Fourth degree: The symptoms described by the Grade III, accompanied by a deep tissue damage and usually - dark red color of the affected areas. Dropping the functions of limbs if they are affected.
Total cooling. We distinguish three degrees: mild moderate severe (most often the outcome is death or disability) From the moment of impact to shift the overall cooling in severe or death occur strengthen the feeling of coldness accompanied by shivering and pricking the skin, the feeling of fainting , hunger, confusion or agitation chaotic, messy and uncoordinated movements, confused speech and unintentional behavior, extreme fatigue subsequent inability to move an overwhelming desire to sleep (mostly snow) and sleep. If not terminated the impact of cold hitherto delay occurs and changes the regulation of breathing to stop him, with subsequent delays and severe change in the regulation of the heart to cardiac arrest and cessation of blood circulation. Before suspending the effective circulation and waste of breath, the victim usually goes through a stage called "fake death" - the final phase of severe Hypothermic shock.
Rescue attempts are made in rapid order if there was no evidence of airway obstruction in a quick, superficial view has not been established and injuries incompatible with life (most severe head injuries) if it is found even minimal (very slow), but available heartbeat when, although there is no reaction of the pupil, the lining of the eye is not completely dry when measured in the external ear (if available) temperature above 26 ¬į C using a special thermometer. When the above criteria are met and started rescue attempts, and they continued during transport to the place of providing qualified assistance. Prevention of local frost and general ohlazhdaane Prevention of cold weather injuries is directed to exclude the influence of the factors described in the beginning. Particular attention is paid to the selection of appropriate personal protective equipment and vehicles, where provided, or you may need a long stay at low temperatures. Furthermore, precise selection of personal equipment should provide enough calories and food and drink. Traffic route should start early and finish around the world in hut or refuge station, where you can relax fully and to ensure thermal comfort, to restore power to taking enough fluids - tea, coffee, broth, water, etc.
Help local and general cooling frost frost Local: isolation of cold replacement quite drenched gloves, hat, socks, etc. Superficial frostbite is treated in a warm room in two ways: by warming the cold leg in a container with water to 38 ¬į C for 20-30 minutes. Then dried, coated with a thin layer and makes Deflamol Non-Textured, dry dressing (best with gauze, bandages and cotton) by a bandage, without massaging and warming in a container with water and a bandage - Non-Textured, with great amount of gauze, bandages and cotton in frost II level, with blisters, they burst and massage the stricken limb. Make a Non-Textured bandage with sterile gauze, pre-coated with Deflamol or Yodasept on it more sterile cotton and bandage. The same goes for local deep frostbite, requiring further immobilization of the limb. The goal is deep frost to protect the development of wet gangrene.
Additionally given plenty of fluids - tea, soup, coffee, etc. pain medication (if no contraindications) - Aspirin with vitamin C, paracetamol, Analgin, Fortral and others. may be given preventive (if no contraindications) and antithrombotic drugs - Antistenokardin, Trental, etc.. mandatory review in a hospital and if necessary administration of protivotetanichna prevention - antibiotics each successive defeat on the same site leads to additional and more severe disabilities - who need to take measures to prevent this Eligible local frostbite treated after arrival of the victim in the hut, shelter or hospital, that is - where will ensure maximum patient comfort temperature. Here he gives an extra calorie food, fluids and more if necessary - pain medication. If necessary - doorganizira and improve the quality of transport to hospital.
General coolers If unconscious, after a short and carefully isolate the cold, check all criteria regarding the presence or absence of basic vital functions and if there is not enough effective ones began attempts to familiar ways. Do remember that if you have an artificial breathing is better in the mask to submit breath of rescuer as it is heated and during the rescue more difficult to provide space heating and humidification of the oxygen feed . You can alternate with AMBU ventilation and air supply of the Savior. Meanwhile apply, if necessary, and heart massage, and in the presence of doctors and medications to apply: Adrenalin, sodium bicarbonate, dexamethasone, and others. Prepare to travel to the place where you can continue with more qualified treatment. If conscious, after isolation from the cold and check for injuries and bleeding begins immediately friendly transport, giving the victim repeatedly small amounts of hot, highly sweetened liquids and observe general condition, respiration and pulse. If during transport cooled unconscious, but kept breathing and heart activity, even at the earliest opportunity to begin an attempt to further slow warming of the so-called body of Hibler - the heart, upper and middle abdomen, where the deep pass large blood vessels. Warming by exposing it under insulation blankets of heating pads, bottles or other containers with water, heated no more than 40 ¬į C. If you are warm, containers can be wrapped with a towel or a towel itself can be dipped in warm water and then wring well be used as a heater. Bottles or hot towels may be placed under the arms on both sides. Moving the cold from one vehicle to another, and transport himself to be very friendly as it discharges from the tissue by heating, can cause fatal cardiac arrhythmias in exercise. Hospital treatment by medicines and equipment used with success in recent years in many countries, methods of artificial circulation, machine heart - lung, peritoneal dialysis, etc.. Rescuers involved in a campaign to demand the evacuation of hypothermia victims than perfect personal equipment is necessary to also have enough calorie food and hot drinks. Liquor can only be given in the huts, shelters and sanitation and transport it in small quantities, just chilled consciousness. Rescue groups should prepare a set of drugs and solutions for intravenous infusion, and a set of artificial respiration. Issue of MRS medical advice on materials of the medical commission of the ICAR.
Snakebites ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
1. Generales />
Los s√≠ntomas adicionales:
decoloraci√≥n de la piel de un √°rea mayor alrededor de la picadura rara vez la gente al√©rgica, puede haber una reacci√≥n com√ļn despu√©s de la picadura (v√≥mitos, n√°useas, desmayos breve) ¬ŅQu√© se debe hacer * - No pongas un torniquete y No apriete demasiado el sitio del tejido de la picadura - aumentar√≠a la reacci√≥n tukanna con inflamaci√≥n - no cortar la tela con herramientas de corte y no chupar la herida - el riesgo de introducci√≥n del veneno directamente en el sistema circulatorio - no se llama protivozmiyski suero, excepto en casos especiales √ļnico hospital de Primeros Auxilios - Remueve todo reforzar el tejido cerca de la zona afectada - Lave la picadura con agua fr√≠a y jab√≥n para la desinfecci√≥n - en peligro o reacci√≥n general a la v√≠ctima ser transportado al hospital acostado en la inmovilizaci√≥n suave el miembro afectado - en la presencia del grupo de m√©dicos y farmac√©uticos, puesto 40-80 mg Urbazon v√≠a intramuscular o intravenosa, o es un sistema con soluci√≥n salina por v√≠a intravenosa - durante el transporte observ√≥ a la v√≠ctima y permitir la colocaci√≥n de compresas de refrigeraci√≥n el sitio de la picadura. Permitidas y dar medicamento para el dolor, en ausencia de contraindicaciones. Tratamiento en el hospital: - Por lo general, cuando los primeros auxilios apropiados en el hospital se aplica antibiotikoterapiya, TAP, las infusiones y la excepci√≥n - el suero. La profilaxis con residencia en las √°reas t√≠picas de las serpientes - usar pantalones largos, zapatos resistentes y choda No intente atrapar y matar a las serpientes visto
Heat and sunstroke ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
The difference between the two states is in that heat stroke can occur not only in the sun. In its most unpleasant complication is that it stops the release of sweat due to dehydration, unlike sunstroke, where the sweat is retained.
2. Symptoms of heat stroke - initial phase - fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, involuntary tremors of individual muscle groups (cramps). - Sat down phase - a violation of tone and consciousness to the degree of heat seizure. Sharp rise in body temperature above the physiological values. Flushing of the skin without sweating. Warning - if left untreated, this condition leads to respiratory arrest and death.
3. First aid for heat stroke - insulation against heat - predproemane of physical cooling - after removing the clothes, wrap a wet pressed sheet, rub the body with a wet towel cooled (sponge), placing the bags and bottles with cold water and ice in armpits, the crotch and abdomen. - If patient is unconscious and nearby medical medication, body temperature decreased by intravenous infusion of chilled saline injections or analgin / antialerzin, muscle. - If the victim is conscious, it is necessary to take sweetened and chilled fluids. When working in very wet and warm areas, need regular intake of carbonated water.
4. Symptoms of sunstroke - fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, but unlike heat stroke does not stop sweating.
5. First aid for sunstroke - insulated from the effects of heat, as the victim is placed in a semi-sitting position. Place cold compress on his head - if the victim is unable to take fluids is given plenty to drink chilled and sweetened drinks - if no improvement is necessary to take transport to the hospital, where he will fight with brain edema
6. Prevention of heat and sunstroke in residence in a warm environment, sunshine and during prolonged exercise - Use of protective equipment, cotton and light clothes, hat and sunglasses Plenty of fluid intake.
Bee sting and axes ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
Stings pose a serious hazard for people allergic to poison where there is intense general reaction most dangerous uzhulvaneto in the mouth - tongue, throat, palate and cheeks, because of the excessive swelling that makes breathing, swallowing and salivation.
2. Sting symptoms - pain, redness and intense swelling at the site of sting
3 First Aid removing the sting - wash with soap and cold water, the sting site - placing a moistened baking soda to the sting site and then put a loose pack of alcohol and Rivanol in equal parts of gauze and cotton top, dripping with cold water. - If the swelling and pain persist, it can be taken orally painkillers and anti-allergic agents
Damage from lightning and electrical shock ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
The electric current causes local damage (burning, charring up) and total (cardiac arrest and subsequent respiratory arrest due to ventricular fibrillation).
2. First Aid
In the foreground is the fight to restore the heart rhythm (cardiac massage), in parallel with artificial respiration. At a later stage to take the treatment of injuries and immobilization, analgesia and transport to hospital for treatment of late effects of electroshock.
3. Prevention - not taking scheduled trips to the risk of a thunderstorm - when falling in a thunderstorm to seek shelter away from the ridges, lonely growing trees, protruding rocks and metal constructions vazmoanost to seek isolation from the wet ground surface entry temporary exemption from metal objects (knives, axes, sticks, wedges, etc.).
In case of accident in the mountains ... –Ī–ĺ–Ľ—Ć—ą–Ķ ...
If you witness an accident in the mountains, your first task is to take care of security, your own and the victim. After making sure that there is no risk of further injury, should get sober analysis of the situation and provide appropriate assistance. The best way is to send someone to the nearest phone or hut, equipped with a radiotelephone alarm and Mountain Rescue Service by phone 02/963 20 00, short number 1470 (for clients of M) and cellular phone 048 18-43. It is a messenger to list the symptoms of the victim to provide adequate medical attention. After establishing contact, wait for the arrival of the rescue team, you have to type that in mountainous terrain that can not always be the speed of Emergency department. If you are close to the victim, watch out for his condition and record its changes. it will be useful to physicians. If you call for help, wait and meet the rescue team to take them to the place of misery.
In the long wait and after nightfall began the gradual cooling of the victim, and the accompanying healthy people. Remember to keep pace life of the victim, such as tucking them in warm clothes and giving calorie food and water (unless contraindicated).